Practice Final

Skin
  1. The chest region of the human body is called the:
      a. abdomen b. thorax c. pelvis d. axillary e. thigh

  2. The surface of an appendage that is toward the outside of the body is said to be:
      a. medial b. lateral c. anterior d. posterior e. coronal

  3. Physiology is mainly concerned with:
      a. growth of the body b. function of the body c. structures of the body d. diseases of the body e. none of the above

  4. The skin of the body is kept flexible by secretions of the:
      a. arrector pili muscle b. Ruffini's corpuscle c. Meissner's corpuscle d. sebaceous glands e. sweat glands

  5. All of the following are functions of the Integumentary System except:
      a. maintain homeostasis b. protect by preventing harmful substances from entering c. retard water loss by diffusion d. regulate body temperature e. all of the above are functions

  6. Krause's receptors detect:
      a. hot b. cold c. sun d. pressure e. pain

  7. What is the name of the heat receptor?
      a. Krause's Corpuscle b. Kelley's Corpuscle c. Moreno's Corpuscle d. Ruffini's Corpuscle e. None of the above

  8. An organism whose temperature is controlled by the environment is called:
      a. poikilothermic b. homeothermic c. Eptescuis furcus d. either a or b e. none of the above are correct

  9. Your knee is _____ to your toes.
      a. distal b. proximal c. medial d. frontal e. inferior

  10. Which of the following is not a tissue?
      a. epithileal tissue b. conductive tissue c. muscle d. nervous e. all of the above are tissues

  11. Cold receptors are located:
      a. deep in the dermis b. in the brain c. near the surface of skin d. in the subcutaneous layer e. on the spine

  12. Dividing the body into front and back portions is which type of cut?
      a. frontal b. distal c. transverse d. proximal e. sagittal

  13. Vitamin D is important in:
      a. muscle contraction b. bone strength c. nerve function d. all of the above e. both a & b

  14. What are Meissner's corpuscles sensitive to?
      a. pressure b. touch c. pain d. hot and cold e. both a & b

  15. What is the outer layer of the skin consisting of mostly dead cells?
      a. dermis b. muscle c. subcutaneous d. hypodermis e. none of the above.

  16. Which is not one of the main functions of the integumentary system?
      a. protective covering b. an area for sensory receptors c. protection from bacteria d. synthesize Vit. D e. provide friction to aid in lifting objects
Skeletal System and Muscles
  1. Red blood cells are produced in the
      a. spongy bone b. cartilage c. red marrow d. yellow marrow e. both a and c

  2. What can you find in spongy bone that you can't in compact bone?
      a. red bone marrow b. yellow bone marrow c. canaliculi d. calcium e. a compact disc

  3. The type of joint formed between the humerus and scapla is called:
      a. a hinge b. a pivot c. a ball and socket d. a saddle e. a gliding joint

  4. The number of cervical vertebrae is:
      a. 7 b. 12 c. 5 d. 4 e. different in children than adults

  5. Which type of joint allows for flexion and extension?
      a. saddle b. pivot c. hinge d. gliding e. none of the above

  6. What type of joints are immovable?
      a. cartilagenous b. synovial c. fibrinous d. a& b e. none of these

  7. __________ are bone-forming cells.
      a. osteoclasts b. osteoblasts c. osteocytes d. a & c e. none of the above

  8. The calcium feedback mechanism:
      a. is used to control calcium in the blood b. uses calcium only from the intercrystalline substance of bone c. is controlled by the brain d. is controlled by the parathyroid glands e. both a and d are correct

  9. How many bone make up the appendicular system?
      a. 80 b. 130 c. 126 d. 100 e. none of the above

  10. The most serious type of fracture is:
      a. green-stick b. compound c. simple d. dislocation e. both b and c are equal

  11. How many bones make up the axial system?
      a. 80 b. 130 c. 126 d. 100 e. none of above

  12. What type of joint(s) allows rotational movement?
      a. ball and socket b. hinge c. pivot d. saddle e. a and c

  13. Yellow bone marrow is found in which region?
      a. medullary b. epiphysis c. diaphysis d. a & c e. none of the above

  14. How does Vitamin D help bones?
      a. helps bones grow b. helps bones absorb calcium c. helps protect against infection d. helps produce red blood cells e. helps absorb Vitamins A & C

  15. What kind of movement does cartilaginous joints have?
      a. partially movable b. freely movable c. immovable d. both a & b e. both b & c

  16. What is the anatomical position?
      a. upside down b. sitting with palms forward c. standing with palms facing forward d. lying down, eyes closed and feet in front e. standing in a relaxed position

  17. _______ is the stored form of _______ which is used to make energy for the cell.
      a. gucose; glucagon b. glycogen; glucose c. glucose; glyconogin d. glycerol; glucose e. glucose; glycogen

  18. Smooth muscle is found in
      a. the heart b. stomach c. bicep d. none of the above e. a & b

  19. What does ATP stand for?
      a. adenosin tetraphosphate b. adenosin terraphosphate c. adenosin trioxide d. adenosin tentiphosphate e. adenosin triphosphate

  20. A high energy bond is split in this material to yield energy
      a. RNA b. DNA c. ADP d. ATP e. both b and c are correct

  21. Which of the following is NOT a function of muscles?
      a. maintain body posture b. movement c. heat production d. production of red blood cells e. a,b and c

  22. What enzyme is responsible for allowing muscles to relax?
      a. calcium ions b. troponin c. acetylcholine d. acetylcholinesterase e. none of the above

  23. A pair of antagonistic muscles are the:
      a. masseter and platysma b. biceps and triceps brachii c. gluteus maximus and gastrocnemius d. vastus lateralis and soleus e. both b and d are correct

  24. What is the insertion of the gastrocnemius muscle?
      a. tibia b. fibula c. calcaneus d. metatarsal e. fibia

  25. What starts the movement of tropomyosin and troponin?
      a. when protein detaches from tropomyosin b. when amino acids transform into protein c. when calcium attaches to troponin d. both a and b e. a only

  26. The muscle tissue that involves involuntary movement includes:
      a. smooth muscle b. skeletal muscle c. cardiac muscle d. smooth and skeletal muscle e. smooth and cardiac muscle

  27. Which types of muscle are multinucleic?
      a. smooth muscle b. cardiac muscle c. skeletal muscle d. all of the above e. a and c

  28. What is the orgin of the pectoralis major?
      a. ilium b. sternum c. scapula d. ulna e. radius

  29. The three zones found in a myofibril are:
      a. A line, H band, B zone b. I band, Z line, H zone c. M zone, I band, H line d. H band, H zone, B zone e. A zone, M band, P zone

  30. Just beneath each skeletal muscle is the cell membrane or ___________ and it's cytoplasm or ____________.
      a. sarcolemma; myosin b. sarcoplasm; actin c. sarcolemma; actin d. sarcoplasm; myosin e. sarcolemma; sarcoplasm

  31. The thick and thin myofibrilaments are ________ and________ respectively:
      a. protein, lipids b. actin, myosin c. myosin, actin d. fibril, proteins e. polypeptides, lipids

  32. What is an isometric contraction?
      a. when your muscle contracts, but does not move b. when your muscle contracts and shortens causing movement c. when your muscle twitches like crazy d. when you are pushing an object e. none of the above

  33. At what part of the muscle contraction is acetylcholine released?
      a. the latent phase b. the relaxaton phase c. the contraction phase d. the stimulus e. the refracting phase

  34. What condition causes the joints to become fixed between 2-72 hours after death.
      a. hypotonic b. hypertension c. post mortem d. rigor mortis e. b and c

  35. When an organ or tissue is enlarged, this is called:
      a. contraction b. hypertrophy c. respiration d. refraction e. atrophy

  36. As referred to a muscle, what is an all or nothing response?
      a. when fibers contract a little b. when fibers do not contract c. when fiber contracts half way d. when fiber contracts fully e. none of the above

  37. What's the longest muscle in the body?
      a. sartorius b. gluteus maximus c. gastrocnemius d. soleus e. none of the above

  38. What is threshold?
      a. maximum amount of stimulus b. minimal amount of stimulus c. movement of skeletal muscle d. maxium amount of pain e. a and d

  39. The function of the latissimus dorsi is to:
      a. adduct arm b. abduct arm c. push arms forward d. flex lowere arm e. all of the above
Peripheral Nervous System
  1. What is the point in the eye with the highest concentration of cones?
      a. choroid b. lens c. iris d. fovea centralis e. macula lutea

  2. The semicircular canals:
      a. lie in the middle ear b. are part of the Eustachian tube c. may cause dizziness when they are stimulated d. lack a bony covering e. contain the tectorial membrane

  3. Which of the following materials would sound travel the fastest?
      a. wood b. air c. string d. steel e. water

  4. The 3 ossicles are found in the ____________.
      a. vestibular membrane b. inner ear c. vestibule d. tympanic cavity e. none of the above

  5. Volume is measured in ___________.
      a. frequency b. cycles per second c. hertz d. tone e. decibles

  6. Static equilibrium is:
      a. high decibal hearing b. sense of turning c. balance when not moving d. sense of fast movement e. balance while in motion

  7. The two functions of the ear are:
      a. hearing and secreting wax b. hearing and maintaining pressure c. hearing and secreting fluid d. hearing and excretion e. hearing and balance

  8. Which of the following is not an eye muscle?
      a. exterior rectus b. inferior rectus c. superior oblique d. all of the above e. both a and c

  9. Astigmatism is the result of:
      a. the eyeball length being too long for the focal length of the eye b. naturally occuring irregularities in the cornea and lense of the eye c. the image being inverted on the retina d. the effects of aging e. reading test diagrams used to show this condition

  10. The synaptic cleft is the space between the axon of one neuron to the dendrite of another neuron. What are the molecules that pass through this synaptic cleft called?
      a. neurotransmitters b. synaptic signals c. acetlycholine d. biochemicals e a and c

  11. Glaucoma is excessive pressure in the eye due to too much:
      a. cornea b. aqueous humor c. vitreous humor d. b and c e. none of the above

  12. What is myopia?
      a. nearsightedness b. farsightedness c. cross sightedness d. blindness e. color blindness

  13. Does a concave lens...
      a. have an oval shape b. bulging out at sides c. a circle like shape d. a shape with sides sloped inward e. none of the above

  14. Which are the functions of rods?
      a. focus on dim lights b. creates images without colors c. provides color vision d. a and b e. a and c

  15. The bending of light as it passes through a transparent material at an angle other than 90 degrees is called?
      a. absorption b. reflection c. hyperopin d. glaucoma e. refraction

  16. If a person is farsighted:
      a. his vision can be corrected by the use of a concave lens b. he can correct the condition temporarily by pressing on his eye to flatten it slightly c. the focal point of the lens lies behind the retina d. he sees an object in the same manner as a person suffering from astigmatism e. none of the above

  17. Contraction of what muscle moves the eye upward
      a. ciliary b. levator palpebrae superiois c. medial rectus d. superior rectus e. superior oblique

  18. What is the clear jelly substance inside the eye?
      a. aqueous humor b. iris c. cornea d. vitreous humor e. retina

  19. Rods and cones are part of :
      a. iris b. pupil c. chorid count d. retina e. cornea

  20. In order for the eye to focus on a nearby object, what occurs?
      a. the ciliary body contracts making the lens flatten b. the ciliary body contracts making the lens more biconvex c. the ciliary body relaxes making the lens flatten d. the ciliary body relaxes making the lens more biconvex e. I have no idea!

  21. The brain and the spinal cord are a part of the:
      a. peripheral nervous system b. somatic nervous system c. central nervous system d. both a and c e. all of the above

  22. There are 3 main regions to a neuron. The:
      a. cell body, nucleus, axon b. nucleus, villi, axon c. cell body, dendrite, axon d. dentrite, myelin sheath, cell body e. cell body, nodes, axon

  23. What part of a neuron sends impulses to the cell body.
      a. axon b. cell body c. cillia d. dendrite e. white matter

  24. What is the difference between white or grey matter?
      a. white is mylinated , grey is unmylinated b. grey is mylinated, white is unmylinated c. they are both unmylinated d. they are the same in every way e. they are both mylinated and unmylinated

  25. What is the function of the myelin sheath?
      a. a membrane covering the nucleus b. produces acetlycholine c. a membrane covering the dendrites d. a membrane convering and insulating the axon e. both b and d

  26. The 3 ossicles found in the ear are called:
      a. incus, eardrum, malleus b. malleus, incus, earlobe c. malleus, incus, stapes d. hammer, drum, snare e. manny, moe and jack

  27. Dynamic equilibrium is all of the following except:
      a. sense of acceleration b. sense of deceleration and turning c. balance when moving d. balance when still e. all of the above are part of dynamic equilibrium

  28. What is the sensitive brush-like structure with a cupula on the tip called?
      a. crista ampullaris b. macula c. otoliths d. saccule e. ampulla
Central Nervous System
  1. What does the hypothalamus control?
      a. heart rate b. blood pressure c. body temperature d. digestion and sleep e. all of the above

  2. Ventricles are:
      a. open spaces in the brain filled with cerebral spinal fluid b. open spaces in the brain filled with blood c. closed off spaces in the brain d. spaces in the spinal cord filled with spinal fluid e. empty, hollow spaces in the brain

  3. The parietal lobe is responsible for:
      a. remembering faces & expressing thought b. storing memory & remembering faces c. controlling hands & face d. expressing thought & understanding speech e. sensory memory & short term memory

  4. An automatic unconscious response to changes in the outside environment is:
      a. cerebrum response b. cerebellum reaction c. reflex d. spinal response e. spinal cord fluctuation

  5. The brain is protected by the:
      a. skull b. meninges c. cerebrospinal fluid d. all of the above e. only A and C

  6. Which part of the brain processes thinking?
      a. medulla oblongata b. brain stem c. cerebral cortex d. sensory cells e. cerebellum

  7. Which of the following is not a function of the cerebrum?
      a. interpreting sensory impulses b. memorization c. reasoning d. initiation of motor impulses e. coordination of motor impulses

  8. The corpus callosum is:
      a. part of the brainstem b. the bridge connecting the cerebral hemispheres c. the part of the brain thatstores information d. the area that interprets sensory impulses e. important for initiating motor impulses

  9. The unmyelinated gray matter in the inner part of the spinal cord are divided into anterior, lateral and posterior:
      a. columns b. horns c. wings d. walls e. none of the above

  10. Columns in the spinal cord:
      a. carry motor impuleses only b. carry sensory impulse only c. carry both motor and sensory impulses d. are made of white matter e. only C and D

  11. The brainstem is responsible for controlling:
      a. breathing b. digestion c. "necessary" functions d. all of the above e. a and c only

  12. The cerebellum is responsible for the coordination of:
      a. homeostasis b. vision c. voluntary muscle movements d. involuntary muscle movements e. only C and D

  13. The spinal cord functions in:
      a. controls impulse to and from the brain b. center for nerve reflexes c. coordination of voluntary muscle movement d. all of the above e. only A and B

  14. The pituitary gland secretes hormones that affect all of these except:
      a. metabolic rate b. growth c. puberty d. nerve impulses e. menstruation
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