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Unit 1

Lecture #1

I. Anatomical Terminology (pg.18)

Discuss reasons-




Anatomical Position (describe)- Relative position:



Inferior (caudal)



Anterior



Ventral



Medial



Proximal



Superficial



Prone



vs.



vs.



vs.



vs.



vs.



vs.



vs.



Superior (cephalic)



Posterior



Dorsal



Lateral



Distal



Peripheral



Supine




II. Body Sections



    1.) Sagittal -





    2.) Transverse -





    3.) Frontal (coronal) -





III. Body Cavities : (name at least 1 organ found in each cavity) pg. 10


Cranial

Thoracic

1.)

1.)

Vertebral

Abdominal

1.)

1.)



Pelvic



1.)



IV. Areas of Body : (give scientific name) fig. 1.23



forehead -

neck -

chest -

armpit -

hand -

thigh -

foot -

head -

groin -

arm -

elbow -

fingers -

knee -

leg -







Lecture #2

I. Detailed Definitions :

    Anatomy -





    Physiology -





    Explain why it is difficult to separate anatomy and physiology -





II. Characteristics of Life (discuss each) :

    Organism -





    Respond -





    Grow -





    Gain energy -





    Reproduce and repair -





    Metabolism -





III. Requirements of Organisms (discuss in your own words the importance of each item) :

    Water -





    Food -





    Oxygen -





    Heat -





    Pressure -





IV. Homeostasis

    Describe a homeostatic mechanism -









    Define negative feedback -









    Why is homeostasis so important to survival?









V. Levels of organization (discuss each) :


Chemical -


Organelle -


Cell -


Tissue -


Organs -


Organ system -


Organism -



VI. Tissues - 4 Major Types : (list functions and locations) (Hint: Chp. 5 is helpful!)

    1. Epithelial -



    2. Connective -



    3. Muscle -



    4. Nervous -



  I. Cutaneous Senses (class lecture) pg. 433-435

    Somatic senses
      1.

      2.

      3.


  II.
    1.) Sensory nerve fibers -



    2.) Meissner's corpuscles -



    3.) Pacinian corpuscles -



    4.) Temperature senses
      a. Cold -


      b. Heat -


    5.) Sense of pain -



III.
Sensitivevs.Insensitive areas (wait till lecture)




Integumentary System

I. Important Functions of the Integumentary Systems : (discuss pg. 161-162)

  1.)

  2.)

  3.)

  4.)

  5.)


II. Skin (Two) Major Layers :

  1. Epidermis (define and name tissue) -



  2. Dermis (define and name tissue) -



  (hypodermis) -



  A. Epidermis

    1. Tissue -



    2. Layers of Epidermis (strata): (discuss each)

      a) Stratum Basale -



      b) Stratum Spinosum -



      c) Stratum Corneum -



    3. Describe position (see fig. 6.3) -



    4. Keratinocytes -



    5. How does thickness vary? -



      In thin skin what layer is missing?



    6. Calluses -



    7. Melanocytes -



  B. Dermis

    1. Papillae -



      Do identical twins have the same fingerprints?



    2. Discuss tissue and thicknesses



    3. Describe postiion (see fig. 6.4)



    4. List 6 structures found in the dermis



    5. Tension lines (wait till lecture)



    6. Stretch marks (wait till lecture)



III. Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)

  discuss tissue-



  function of adipose in subcutaneous layer-



  Discuss thickness







Accessory organs of the skin or skin appendages



I. Hair follicles

  A. Where is hair not found?


  B. lanugo (wait till lecture)-


  C. Terminal Hairs (wait till lecture)-


  D. Vellus Hairs (wait till lecture)-


  E. Compare female vs. male hair-



    1. Root-



    2. Shaft-

      a. Medulla (wait till lecture)-


      b. Cortex (wait till lecture)-


      c. Cuticle (wait till lecture)-


    3. Follicle-

      Explain how hair forms?


      a. Matrix (wait till lecture)-



    4. Hair Growth

      growth stage-


      resting stage-


      Discuss hair colors-



II. Muscles

  Arrector Pili Muscle-


  Explain what causes goosebumps?



III. Nails-

  Function-


  Nail plate-


  Nail bed-


  Lunula-


  How does the composition of a fingernail differ from that of a hair?







IV. Cutaneous Glands (Skin Glands)

  1. Subaceous Glands (discuss)


    a. Sebum-


    b. Where are sebaceous glands located?-


  2. Sweat Glands: discuss



    a. Eccrine (Not Assoc. with Hair)



      Function-


      Locations-


      Contents of sweat-


    b. Apocrine (Associated with Follicles)


      Contents of sweat-


      Function-


      Location-





I. Regulation of Body Temperature (pgs. 173-175)

  A. Discuss the importance of body temperature?-





  B. Heat Production:

    1. What process releases heat-



    2. List the most active cells-



  C. What Distributes Heat?



  D. Describe how the hypothalamus would cool the body if it became too hot.



  E. Discuss the primary means of heat loss.


    1. Radiation-



    2. Conduction-



    3. Convection-



    4. Evaporation-



      2 Main Ways:

      Perspiration-

      Breathing-



    F. Discuss how the body reacts to excessive heat loss?





II. Body Temperature & Fluctuations (wait till lecture):





  Warm vs. Cold Blooded Animals (wait till lec.)

  Discuss the process of Hyperthermia-





  Discuss the process of Hypothermia-





  Fever (wait till lecture)-





  Heat Exhaustion (see clinical note on page 174)-





  Heat Stroke (wait till lecture)





  What is the tissue response to inflammation?





  Which type of burn is most likely to leave a scar? why?







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