Unit 2

Lecture #1

I. Bone structure: (pg. 185 & Fig. 7.1) Discuss each and give example of bone-

    1) Long-

    2) Short-

    3) Flat-

    4) Irregular-

II. Parts of a Long Bone: (Bone Anatomy pg. 185-186)
  (Make a drawing w/labels of the top right diagram on pg. 186)

  **Hint: Study the function of each labels (Pg. 185-186)

III. Microscopic Structure:

Haversion System or Osteon (pg. 151 & 187) (Wait till lecture)

IV. Bone Matrix (wait till lecture)

  Framework (2-part)

    1. Organic Part (wait till lecture)-

    2. Inorganic Part (wait till lecture)-

    1) Compact Bone (discuss) (pg. 187)-

    2) Spongy Bone (discuss) (pg. 187)-

Lecture #2

V. Bone Development and Growth (pg. 188-192)

    Summarize the first paragraph-

VI. Comparison of Intramembranous and Endochondral Ossification
  (Duplicate Table 7.1 here) (Read pgs. 188-192 for further explanations)

Helpful Points

    1. Starts 8 weeks after conception, stops at 25 years.
    2. Our first embronic skeleton is cartilage.
    3. Bone-building cells (osteoblasts) invade the cartilage from the surrounding periosteum.
    4. The osteoblasts hook together and then secrete minerals forming bone.

VII. Homeostasis of Bone tissue 9pg. 192)

    Summarize paragraph-

** Good students will study Figure 7.15

VIII. Factors Affecting Bone Development, Growth, and Repair
  (Discuss the importance of each)

    1) Vitamin D-

    2) Vitamins A & C-

    3) Growth Hormone-

    4) Thyroid Hormone-

IX. Bone Function: (pg. 193-198) Discuss each

    1) Support-

    2) Protection-

    3) Body Movement-

    4) Blood Cell Formation-

 Bone Marrow:

  Two Types (Discuss each)

    a) Red-


    b) Yellow-


    5) Inorganic Salt Storage-

Lecture #3

X. Skeletal Organization

    Number of Bones-

    Division of the Skeleton: (List the number of bones)
    (study table 7.3)

    1) Axial Skeleton (discuss bones)

    2) Appendicular skeleton

Joints of the Skeletal System Chapter 8

  Define articulations-

I. Classification of Joints   A) Fibrous (Synarthrotic) discuss-

    Ex. suture-

  B) Cartilaginous (Amohiarthrotic) discuss-

    Ex. symphysis-

  C) Synovial (Diarthrotic) discuss-

II. General Structue of a Synovial Joint (pgs. 260-261)

  Define the following:

    articular cartilage-

    joint capsule-


    synovial fluid-


III. Types of Synovial Joints: (262)

    1) Ball and Socket-

    2) Condyloid (Ellipsoid)-

    3) Gliding-

    4) Hinge-

    5) Pivot-

    6) Saddle-

IV. Discuss types of Movements (pg 262-265) (wait till lecture)

Lecture #4

V. Joint Disorders (pgs 276-277)

1) Sprains (pg 276)-

2) Bursitis (pg 276)-

3) Arthritis-

4) Rheumatoid


5) Osteoarthritis



Ligaments (wait till lec.)








Dislocation (wait till lec.)

VII. Fractures: (pg. 194)




    a) Greenstick (incomplete)

      b) Complete-






Lecture #5

Levers (pg 313-317)


    1) Lever

    2) Effort (E)

    3) Resistance (R)

    4) Mechanical Advantage (MA)


    If MA > 1 =

    If MA < 1 =

  Types of Levers:

    1st Class Levers:

    2nd Class Levers:

    3rd Class Levers:

Lecture #6

Calcium Feedback System: (fig. 7.15 or bottom of pg 198)

  Calcium ions (Ca++) in extracellular fluid are necessary for:

    1) blood clotting
    2) muscle contraction
    3) nerve function

  The proper level of Ca++ is controlled by the parathyroid gland

    Location- anterior to trachea (4 total>

  If the level of calcium is too LOW in the extracellular fluid, then:

    1) Parathyroid hormone is secreted which causes osteoclasts to break down bone and release Ca++

    2) Parathyroid hormone also causes more Ca++ to be absorbed fromt he intestines.

  If the level of Ca++ is too HIGH then:

    1) Parathyroid hormone is cut off which causes calcium to be added to the bone.

    2) Thyroid gland releases calcitonin which causes osteoblasts to deposit calcium in the bone
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