Unit 10

URINARY SYSTEM (Excretory system)

  Functions-



  Major Structures-



  Kidneys:

    Location-



    Functions-



    Gross Structure-

      Size-


      Hilus-


      Blood Vessels-


      Ureter-


      Urethra-


KIDNEY STRUCTURE















3 Major Layers:

  Renal Cortex-


  Renal Medulla-


    pyramids-


    papilla-


  Renal Pelvis-


    calyces-



KIDNEY MICROSTRUCTURE

I. Nephron





  Renal Corpuscle:

    1. Afferent Arteriole-


    2. Glomerulus-


    3. Efferent Arteriole-


    4. Peritubular Capillaries-



  Renal Tubule:

    1. Bowman's Capsule-



    2. Proximal Convoluted Tubule-



    3. Loop of Henle-



    4. Distal Convoluted Tubule-



BLOOD FLOW:













  Ureter-



  Urinary Bladder-



  Urethra-



  Urine-





  Gonads-



  Gametes-



  Spermatazoon-







  Ovum-







  Fertilization-



  Chromosome (46)-

  Somatic Cells-

  Gametes-



Why is meiosis necessary?





Male Reproductive Structures:

TESTES-



  A). Description-



  B). Seminiferous Tubules-



  C). Interstitial Cells-



  D). Epididymis-



    1. crytporchidism-



    2. spermatazoa-



II. ACCESSORY STRUCTURES

  A). Scrotum-


  B). Vas Deferens-


  C). Seminal Vesicles-


  D). Ejaculatory Ducts-


  E). Prostate Glands-


  F). Bulbourethral Glands-


    1. Semen-


  G). Penis-


    1. Cavernous Tissue-

    2. Erection-

    3. Foreskin-

      a. circumcision-

    4. Glans-

    5. Urethra-



Female Reproductive Structures

OVARIES:



  Medulla-



  Cortex-



    Follicle-



    Corpus Luteum-



  Hormones-



  Estrogen-



  Progesterone-





OVIDUCTS



  Fimbria-



UTERUS



  Layers-



  Fundus-



  Body-



  Cervix-





VAGINA







LABIA MAJORA & LABIA MINORA













CLITORIS









VESTIBULE











MENSTRUAL CYCLE



  DEFINITIONS:

    FSH- Hormone produced by pituitary gland that stimulates the growth of the ovum-containing follicles in the ovary

    LH- Hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates the development of the corpus luteum.


MENSTRUATION DAY 1-5:
    1. The pituitary gland secretes FSH
    2. FSH stimulates a follicle to mature

PROLIFERATION DAY 6-13:
    3. Follicle cells secrete estrogen
      a) It maintains sac. sex characteristics
      b) It causes endometrium to thicken

OVULATION DAY 14:
    4. Pituitary gland secrtes LH which causes ovulation and follicle bcomes corpus luteum

SECRETORY DAY 15-25:
    5. Corpus luteum secretes progesterone
      a) It causes endometriu to become even thicker and more vascular
      b) It tops release of any FSH or LH from pituitary

SECRETORY DAY 26-28:
    6. If the ovum is not fertilized, then corpus luteum disintergrates

MENSTRUATION Day 1-5:
    7. Without progesterone from corpus luteum, endometrium sloughs off (menstruation)
    8. The cycle repeats itself

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