A&P UNIT 2
Chapter 7

1. Bone structure: (pg. 185 & Fig. 7.1) Discuss each and give 
   example of bone-

      1) Long-



      2) Short-


      
      3) Flat-



      4) Irregular-


II. Parts of a Long Bone: (Bone Anatomy pg. 185-186)
    (Make a drawing w/labels of the top right diagram on pg. 186)




















   **Hint: Study the function of each labels (Pg. 185-186)






III. Microscopic Structure:

     Haversion System or Osteon (pg. 151 & 187)
      (Complete this section in class)













IV. Bone Matrix (wait till lecture)

       Framework (2-part)

        1. Organic Part (wait till lecture)-





        2. Inorganic Part (wait till lecture)-





        1) Compact Bone (discuss) (pg. 187)-






        2) Spongy Bone (discuss) (pg. 187)- 


V. Bone Development and Growth (pg. 188-192)

    Summarize the first paragraph-








VI. Comparison of Intramembranous and Endochondral Ossification
    (Duplicate Table 7.1 here) (Read pgs. 188-192 for further explanations)


















Helpful Points

    1. Starts 8 weeks after conception, stops at 25 years.
    2. Our first embronic skeleton is cartilage.
    3. Bone-building cells (osteoblasts) invade the cartilage 
       from the surrounding periosteum.
    4. The osteoblasts hook together and then secrete 
       minerals forming bone.









VII. Homeostasis of Bone tissue 9pg. 192)

      Summarize paragraph-










** Good students will study Figure 7.15


VIII. Factors Affecting Bone Development, Growth, and Repair
      (Discuss the importance of each)

     1) Vitamin D-




     2) Vitamins A & C-




     3) Growth Hormone-




     4) Thyroid Hormone-



IX. Bone Function: (pg. 193-198)  Discuss each

     1) Support-





     2) Protection-





      3) Body Movement-





      4) Blood Cell Formation-



           Bone Marrow:


        Two Types (Discuss each)
             a) Red-


                Location-

             b) Yellow-


                Location-

         5) Inorganic Salt Storage-



      X. Skeletal Organization
            
            Number of Bones-


             Division of the Skeleton: (List the number of bones)
                    (study table 7.3)

          1) Axial Skeleton (discuss bones)




          2) Appendicular skeleton








        Joints of the Skeletal System Chapter 8

             Define articulations-



   I.    Classification of Joints
          A) Fibrous (Synarthrotic) discuss-


                 
                   Ex. suture-



          B) Cartilaginous (Amohiarthrotic) discuss-



                   Ex. symphysis-



          C) Synovial (Diarthrotic) discuss-



   II. General Structue of a Synovial Joint (pgs. 260-261)
       Define the following:

          articular cartilage-


          joint capsule-


          ligaments-


          synovial fluid-


          bursae-


   III. Types of Synovial Joints: (262)

                1) Ball and Socket-


                2) Condyloid (Ellipsoid)-


                3) Gliding-


                4) Hinge-


                5) Pivot-


                6) Saddle-




   IV. Discuss types of Movements  (pg 262-265)
           (wait till lecture)


   V. Joint Disorders (pgs 276-277)

                 1) Sprains  (pg 276)-




 
                 2) Bursitis (pg 276)-





                 3) Arthritis-





                 4) Rheumatoid               vs.              5) Osteoarthritis






                 Tendons              vs.              Ligaments (wait till lec.)
                 1)
                 2)
                 3)
                 4)



   VI.        Sprain                 vs.               Dislocation (wait till lec.)





   VII.  Fractures: (pg. 194)

                 Simple         vs.       Compound



           a) Greenstick (incomplete)



           b) Complete-



                  transverse-


                  oblique-


                  spiral-


                  fissure-


                  comminuted-







      A & P
      Levers   (pg 313-317)


          Definitions:

              1) Lever





              2) Effort (E)




              3) Resistance (R)




              4) Mechanical Advantage  (MA)



                   MA=




                   If MA   >   1       =

                   If MA   <   1       =



     Types of Levers:

           1st Class Levers:










          2nd Class Levers:










          3rd Class Levers:











    Calcium Feedback System: (fug. 7.15 or bottom of pg 198)
 
            Calcium ions (Ca++) in extracellular fluid are necessary for:

                  1) blood clotting
                  2) muscle contraction
                  3) nerve function

            The proper level of Ca++ is controlled by the parathyroid gland

                         Location- anterior to trachea
                                      (4 total)

            If the level of calcium is too LOW in the extracellular fluid, then:

                  1) Parathyroid hormone is secreted which causes osteoclasts to 
                     break down bone and release Ca++  
                  
                  2) Parathyroid hormone also causes more Ca++ to be absorbed from 
                     the intestines.


            If the level of Ca++ is too HIGH then:

                  1) Parathyroid hormone is cut off which causes calcium to be 
                     added to the bone.

                  2) Thyroid gland releases calcitonin which causes osteoblasts 
                     to deposit calcium in the bone













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