A&P Unit 7: Liver, Pancreas, Intestines
Lecture 1

I. Liver (pgs. 678-684)
  A. Description (summarize the first   

   1. Largest gland in the body (wait till 

   2. Lobes (name the four lobes)

   3. Location (describe position in body)

   4. Shape (wait till lecture)

 B. Gross Structure
 1. Name the two folds of visceral peritoneum

 2. Blood Supply (describe the type of blood    
    on each (pg. 679-680)

   a). Hepatic Portal Vein-

   b). Hepatic Artery-

   c). Umbilical Vein (wait till lecture)

   d). Sinusoids-

   e). Central Vein-

   f). Hepatic Vein (wait till lecture)

C. Some Liver Functions (680-681)
  1. Carbohydrate Metabolism-

  2. Lipid Metabolism-

  3. Protein Metabolism- 

  4. Synthesiszs Blood Clotting Proteins-

  5. Stores Vitamins-

  6. Filters & Detoxifies Blood-

  7. Inactivates Hormones (wait till lecture)

  8. Secrets Bile (wait till lecture)

Lecture 2
D. Liver Microstructure
  1. Hepatic Lobules (draw fig. 17.30 and  

(discuss each of the following)
Hepatic Cells-

Kupffer's Cells-

Hepatic Sinusoid-

Central Vein-

Bile Canal (Canaliculi)

2. Each lobule acts as a tiny secreting gland
   (wait till lecture)

E. Circulation Through Liver
  1. Blood: (wait till lecture)

  2. Bile: (wait till lecture)

F. Composition of Bile (discuss each- pg. 
  1. Bile-

  2. Contents-

  3. How is bile produced-

   a). Bile salts-

   b). Bilirubin & Biliverdin-

   c). Cholesterol-

G. Gallbladder (discuss each)(pgs. 681-684)
 1. Description_

 2. Function-

  a). Capacity-

   b). Contracts when stimulated by the  
       hormone cholecystokinin from small 

   c). Gall Stones-

 Lecture 3

II. Pancreas              Pgs. 676-677
 A. Description- (1st paragraph)

   Location- ( 2nd paragraph)

B. Pancreatic (acinar) Cells-

C. Pancreatic Duct-

D. Pancreatic Juice
 1. Contents-

 2. Pancreatic Enzymes- Discuss each

  a). Pancreatic amylase ( amylopsin)-

  b). Pancreatic lipase (steapsin)-

  c). Trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase (protease)-



  d). Trypsinogen- discuss what activates it.

  e) Nucleases-

  f). What is the function of bicarbonate ions in pancreatic juice?

 E). Hormones fom the duodenum that control     
   secretions of the pancreatic cells:

 1. Secretin-(discuss)

 2. Pancreozymin- (wait till lecture)

F. Islets of Langerhans (pg. 507-508)

 Discuss the endocrine portion of the pancreas- (3rd paragraph)

 1. Two Cells in Islets of Langerhans:
   a). Alpha Cells-

   b). Function of Glucagon-

   c). Beta Cells-

   d). Function of Insulin-

2. Diabetes Mellitus (pg. 509)

Lecture 4
III. Small Intestine    (pgs. 685-692)
  A. Structure
   1. Description

2. Divisions
  a). Duodenum-

  b). Jejunum-

  c). Ileum

3. Layers (outside to inside)
  a). Serous Layer-

  b). Longitudinal Muscle-

  c). Circular Muscle-

  d). Submucosa-

  e). Mucosa-

4. Intestinal Mucosa (draw fig. 17.37 and  

Circular Folds-

Columnar Cells-

Goblet Cells-

Crypts of Lieberkuhn-

Capillary Network-


B. Secretions (pg. 688)
 1. Enterokinase-

 2. Erepsin (peptidase)-

 3. Carbohydrases
  a). Maltase-

  b). Sucrase-

  c). Lactase-

C. Intestinal Movements (pgs. 691-692)
 1. Segmentation

 2. Pendular-

 3. Peristalsis-

Lecture 5
IV. Large Intestine    (pgs. 692-696)

 A. Structure
  1. Description-

 2. Divisions-
  a). Cecum-

  b). Appendix-

  c). Colon
   1. Ascending-

   2. Transverse-

   3. Descending-

   4. Sigmoid-

   5. Rectum-

   6. Anal Canal-

3. Special Features

  a). Tenia Coli-

  b). Haustra-

  c). Circular Muscles-

4. Activity
  a). Movement-

  b). Bacterial-

  c). Fecal Material-

  d). Defecation-

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