Unit 1 = The Integumentary System

  You Should Know:

  PLANES OF THE BODY
    transverse, sagittal, coronal
  SYMMETRY
    asymmetrical, radial, bilateral
  ORIENTATION OF PARTS
    superior/inferior, lateral/medial, dorsal/ventral, distal/proximal, anterior/posterior,
  REGIONS OF THE BODY
    surfaces & specific parts
  DEFINITIONS
    anatomy, physiology, poikilothermic, prone, etc.
  SKIN APPENDAGES
    nails, hair, sweat glands, sebaceous glands
  SENSORY RECEPTORS
    nost prevalent vs. least, Ruffini, Pacinian, Krause, Pain, Meissner's locations
  HEAT REGULATION
    role of hypothalamus, blood, vasoconstriction/vasodilation
  HEAT PRODUCTION
    oxidation of carb., prot., & fats; muscular activity
  HEAT LOSS
    convection, radiation, evaporation, conduction
  SKIN LAYERS
    Epidermis: stratus corneum, granulosum and germinativum; Dermis: papillae, subcutaneous
  BODY CAVITIES
    cranial, vertebral, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic
  HAIR
    layers, pigment, sebaceous glands, arector pili
  TEMPERATURE vs. HEAT
    velocity vs. total energy
     Lec Notes 1 
     Practice Test
     Practice Test #2
 
Unit 2  = The Skeletal System

  You Should Know:

  BONE STRUCTURE
    macrostructure, microstructure, bone formation, chemical makeup
  BONE SHAPES & FUNCTIONS
    flat, short, long, irregular; 3 functions of bone
  AXIAL & APPENDICUAR SKELETON
    four parts of the axial skeleton, identify bones
  FONTANNELS
    define, where are major ones located
  VERTEBRAE
    regions, processes, joints, curvatures
  PELVIC & PECTORAL GIRDLES
    major bones of each, comparison to cat
  MALE vs. FEMALE PELVIS
    angle of pubic bone, broader in female, higher in male
  JOINTS
    hinge, pivot, gliding, angular, ball and socket, saddle; bursae, tendons vs. ligaments
  LEVERS
    calculating M.A., main parts of lever, 3 classes, examples
  CALCIUM FEEDBACK
    cycle, parathyroid glands
  FRACTURES & SPRAINS
    difference between the two types of fractures
     Pretest 2
     Lec Notes 2
     Practice Test
     Practice Test #2
 
Unit 3  = The Muscular System

  You Should Know:

  MUSCLE MICROSTRUCTURE
    bands, zones, lines, etc.
  STRUCTURE OF MUSCLE
    cardiac, smooth, skeletal
  INSERTION, BELLY, ORIGIN
  TYPES OF MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS
    twitch, tetanic, tonic, etc.
  PHASES OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION
    latent, contraction, relaxation, recovery
  BODY REACTIONS TO MUSCLE ACTIVITY
    circulatory, respiratory, etc.
  ATP CYCLE
    lactic acid, glycogen, glucose, etc.
  NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION
    lactic acid, glycogen, glucose
  ATROPHY/HYPERTROPHY
  MOVEMENTS
    abduct, extend, etc.
  SKELETAL MUSCLES
    insertions, origins, functions and antagonists of muscles listed in Worksheet packet
  TENDONS/LIGAMENTS
     Lec Notes 3
     Practice Test
     Practice Test #2
 
Unit 4  = The Peripheral Nervous System

  You Should Know:

  EYE:
    Structure and Functions
    Sequence of Structures
    Accommodation, Snellen Eye Chart, Visual Acuity
    Peripheral Vision
    Rods and Cones
    Concave vs. Convex Lenses, Refraction
    Defects and Corrections for: Astigmatism, Myopia, Hyperopia, and Presbyopia
  EAR:
    Structure and Function of Outer, Middle, and Inner Ear
    Utricle Structure and Function
    Semicircular Canals; Structures and Functions
    Dynamic vs. Static Equilibrium
    Types of Deafness
    Cerumen
  PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    Neuron; Structure and Functions
    Afferent vs Efferent; Receptor vs Effector
    Exteroreceptors, Interoreceptors, Contact vs. Teloreceptor
    Autonomic Nervous System:
      Parasympathetic vs. Sympathetic, Locations
      Transmitter Chemicals, Preganglionic vs. Postganglionic Fibers
    States on Nerve Impulse Graph
    Summation, Threshold

     Lec Notes 4
     Practice Test
 
Unit 5  = The Central Nervous System

  You Should Know:

  SPINAL CORD
    Diagram
    Functions
    Regions and their Functions
    Gray vs. White Matter
    Vertebrae Structure
    Epidural Space
    Meninges
    Enlargements
    Reflex
    Reflex Arc (pathway)
  BRAIN
    Cerebrum
      Location
      Functions of Lobes
      Fissures
      Cortex
      Right vs Left Hemisphere
      Convolutions
      Sulci
      Corpus Callosum
      Diagram
    Brain Stem
      Diencephalon - 3 parts, Functions and Locations
      Diagram
      Locations and Functions of:
        Midbrain
        Pons
      Medulla Oblongata
      Crossing Over
    Cerebellum
    Ventricles
    Cerebrospinal Fluid
    Cranial Nerves - Numbers and General Definition

     Lec Notes 5
     Practice Test
 
Unit 6 = The Digestive System Part 1 (mouth/stomach)

  You Should Know

  MOUTH STRUCTURE
  ACCESSORY ORGANS
    Functions and Structure of:
      Salivary Glands
      Teeth
      Tongue
  ESOPHAGUS
  STOMACH
    Structure
    Gastric Glands
    Secretions
    Hormones
  PHASES OF GASTRIC SECRETION
  VITAMINS
  FUNCTIONS, SOURCES, AND RESULTS OF DEFICIENCIES FOR VITAMINS:
    A, D, E, K, B(12), C, Niacin, Thiamine
  PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  ENZYMES
  NUTRITION
     Lec Notes 6
     Practice Test
     Practice Test #2

Unit 7 = The Digestive System Part 2 (liver/pancreas/intestines)

  You Should Know

  LIVER
    Microstructure
    Circulation
    Lobes
    Functions
    Location
    Circulation of Blood and Bile in Lobule
  PANCREAS
    Islets of Langerhans
    Alpha and Beta Cells (tell a friend)
    Endocrine and Exocrine Secretions
    Microstructure
    Functions
    Location
    End Products of Enzyme Action
  INTESTINES
    Large and Small Intestine Structure
    Villi Microstructure
    Large and Smalle Intestine Function
    Hormones and their Actions
    Enzymes, Substrates, End Products
    Divisions
    Movements
    pH
    Flexures
    End Products of Digestion
     Lec Notes 7
     Practice Test
     Practice Test #2

Unit 8 = The Heart and Lungs

  You Should Know

  HEART
    Heart Structure
    Adult Circulation
    Fetal Circulation
    Coronary Circulation
    Conduction System
    ECG
    Heart Sounds
    Cardiac Cycle
    Cardiac Muscle Characteristics
    Heart Rate Lab
  LUNGS
    Structure and Function of:
      Nose
      Pharynx
      Larynx
      Trachea
      Lungs
      Pleura
      Diaphragm
    Stethoscope, Spirometer
    Air Volumes
    External & Internal Respiration
    Respiratory Disorders

     Lec Notes 8
     Practice Test
     Practice Test #2

Unit 9 = The Circulatory System/Gel Elect.

  You Should Know

  BLOOD VESSELS
    Names, Locations, Structure, and Functions of Different Kinds of Blood Vessels
    Structure and Function of Different Kinds of Blood
    Blood Pressure
    Vasodilators vs Vasoconstrictors
  BLOOD
    Thrombocytes
    Erythrocytes - Structure, Where Produced, Function
    Leukocytes - %, Structure, Where Produced, Function
    Wright's Stain (Procedure for Making Smear)
    Diapedesis, Phagocytosis
    Hemopoesis - Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Factors, Hemocytoblast
    Plasma
    Clotting Process
    Blood Typing - Procedure, Agglutinogens, Agglutinins, Possible Donors & Recipients
  LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
    Circulation
    Structures
    Functions, etc.
     Lec Notes 9
     Practice Test
     Practice Test #2

Unit 10 = The Reproductive/Excretory Systems

  You Should Know

  EXCRETORY SYSTEM
    Gross Kidney Structure
    Nephron Structure
    Excretory Pathway
    Blood Flow through Kidney
    Normal Contents of Urine
    Kidney Disorders (in text)
  MEIOSIS
    Major Events and Phases
    Oogenesis vs. Spermatogenesis
    Haploid (N) vs. Diploid (2N)
  MALE
    Accessory Reproductive Structures and Functions
    Reproductive Hormone
    Inguinal Canal and Descent
    Seminal Fluid Contents
    Sperm Structure
  FEMALE
    Reproductive Structures and Functions
    Follicle vs. Corpus Luteum
    Mammary Structure
    Placenta, Fetal Circulation, Umbilical Cord
    Extra Embryonic Membranes
    Menstrual Cycle
    Menopause, Menarches
     Lec Notes 10
     Practice Test
     Practice Test #2
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