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Unit 1
  1. List and discuss the 4 methods of heat loss that may affect the body. (Don't give bodily functions)
  2. Discuss the stratum germinativum.
  3. Name the two dorsal body cavities and give an example of and organ found in each one.
  4. Discuss the structure and function of sweat glands. (both types)
  5. Name and discuss the 5 types of sense receptors found in the skin. (scientific names, functions, locations, etc.)
  6. Define tissue and name 4 major types.
  7. Explain the function of the hypothalamus in controlling body temperature.
  8. Discuss skin structure in detail. (layers, appendages, diagrams, etc.)
  9. Define tissue, organ, and organ system and give 1 example of each.
  10. Name 2 ventral body cavities and give and example of an organ in each.
  11. Discuss the general results in Lab 1-5 and what function of the skin was illustrated.
  12. Discuss, in detail, the 4 appendages (accessory organs) of the skin.
  13. Distinguish between radiation and conduction.
  14. Distinguish between anatomy and physiology.
  15. Discuss the cutaneous glands in detail.
  16. Define each of the following and use in an accurate sentence about the human body.
  17. Describe the position of the human nose using the following terms: superior, anterior, medial.
Unit 2
    State the names of the bones of the lower appendage from proximal to distal. (or distal to prox.)

    State the names of the bones of the upper appendage from proximal to distal. (or distal to prox.)

    List the bones of the appendicular skeleton and the # of each.

  2. LEVERS:
    Draw an label a 3rd class lever and give an example of one in the body. Also describe how to increase its M.A.

    Identify a lever and calculate its M.A.

    Draw and label a 1st, 2nd, and 3rd class lever and give an example of one in the body. Describe how to increase its M.A.

    Discuss 4 main shapes of bones and give 2 examples of each.

    Explain how the calcium feedback system works in humans.

    Distinguish between the male and female pelvis.

    Draw and label a long bone. (at least 8 parts)

    Draw and label a Haversian System and label at least 5 parts.

  5. JOINTS:
    Name 3 types of synovial joints. Give their locations and articulating bones.

    Give the location and bones involved in a pivot join. (also gliding and hinge)

    bursae, ligament, epiphysis, foramen, parathyroid, collagen, canaliculi, periosteum, cancellous bone, lacuna, arthritis, sprain, simple fracture.

    Cat vs. Human. Discuss from superior to inferior, 6 adaptations for upright posture in the human.

    Discuss 4 major functions of bone and give examples. Compare axial and appendicular skeletons as to # of bones, functions, shapes, joints, etc.
Unit 3
  1. There will be a chart to fill in requiring that you know names, origins, insertions, and actions of any muscles on the lecture hand out.
  2. Draw a label a few smooth muscle cells as seen under the microscope in Lab 3-1.
  3. Draw and label a skeletal muscle cell as seen under the microscope in Lab 3-1.
  4. Draw and label a single skeletal muscle cell and a single smooth muscle cell and discuss two differences in their structure.
  5. Draw and label a section of a myofibril similar to the paper model in Lab 3-2.
  6. Discuss the difference between isotonic and isometric contractions and give a specific example of each.
  7. Discuss 2 ways in which the strength of a skeletal muscle contraction can be changed.
  8. Discuss the All or None Response and how it applies to a muscle cell contraction.
  9. Explain why the majority of a muscle is never located on the part it moves.
  10. Discuss the difference between hypertrophy and atrophy and give an example of how each might occur.
  11. Define the following in detail: acetylcholine, sphincter muscle, insertion, isometric, contraction, plantar flexion, rigor mortis and antagonist.
  12. In sequence, list the leg muscles (and their actions) involved in taking a step forward when walking.
  13. Why is it beneficial for us to have three different types of muscle tissue rather than just one ofr all body functions? Give some examples to illustrate your statements.
  14. List the sequence of steps in a single muscle twitch. Draw an example of the myogram and give a description of what is happening at each of the five steps.
  15. Discuss skeletal muscle contraction in detail. Include ATP, acetylcholine, neuromuscular junction, glucose, oxygen, lactic acid, cholenesterase, etc.
  16. What role does each of the following play during the contraction of muscle? ATP, glycogen, lactic acid, oxygen, acetylcholine, mitochondria.
Unit 4
  1. Define the following terms in as much detail as possible: cerumen, synapse, eustachian tube, blind spot, astigmatism, place theory, presbytopia, sensory adaptation, polarized/depolarized, visual acuity, ossicles, refraction, concave lens, myopia, hyperopia, parasympathetic, sympathetic, myelin sheath
  2. Draw and label a neuron and identify 8 structure.
  3. Discuss the extrinsic eye muscles. (names, functions, origins, insertions) (review in book)
  4. Define myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia and discuss what type of lens is used to correct this problem.
  5. Discuss the utricle and saccule in detail. (location, structure, and function)
  6. Discuss in sequence, the structures light must pass through to get from the outside to the point where it registers as an impulse to the brain. Give a brief function for each part.
  7. Discuss hyperopia and what type of lens is used to correct it.
  8. Beginning with the auricle and ending with the brain, LIST, in sequence, the structures involved in hearing.
  9. Discuss how static equilibrium is maintained.
  10. Discuss how the inner ear distinguishes between a loud sound and a soft sound.
  11. Discuss the semicircular canals in detail. (structure and functions)
  12. Discuss the importance to the eye of the following structures: lacrimal gland, cornea, iris, vitreous humor, aqueous humor, retina. (don't be too brief)
  13. Discuss the middle ear in detail. (location, structures and their functions)
  14. Discuss the Autonomic Nervous system in detail. (divisions, fiber neurotransmitters, and functions)
Unit 5
  1. What are two functions of the spinal cord and 3 ways it is protected?
  2. Discuss the spinal cord in detail. (location, function, structure, diagram, how protected, etc.)
  3. Define "reflex arc" and list the proper sequence of steps in a simple reflex arc. (at least 8 steps)
  4. What is the difference between the gray and white matter of the spinal cord? (structure and function)
  5. Discuss cerebrospinal fluid. (location, function, where made, circulation, etc.)
  6. Discuss the meninges. (names, function, location)
  7. List the 4 lobes of a cerebral hemisphere and give 2 functions of each.
  8. What are the two main functions of the cerebellum and where is it located? (use at least 3 anatomical terms to describe its location)
  9. In an organized essay, discuss the 4 major areas of the brain stem. (locations, functions of each)
  10. Discuss the cerebrum in detail. (location, lobes, functions, features, hemispheres, etc.)
  11. complete the chart on the 2 divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System. (see handout)
  12. Definitions: cerebellum, hypothalamus, dura mater, meninges, cranial nerve, EEG, medulla oblongata, epidural space, mixed nerve, diencephalon, intervertebral foramen, spinal tap.
Unit 6
  1. Give the source, function and result of deficiency for the following vitamins: D, C (ascorbic acid), K, A
  2. What role do the following play in protein synthesis? Amino acids, ribosomes, m-RNA, DNA, t-RNA
  3. List 3 major functions for each of the following: saliva, tongue, stomach
  4. Discuss the teeth in detail. (diagram, functions, location, structure, enzymes, etc.)
  5. Define the following in detail and using complete sentences: gastric protease, deglutition, gastric mucosa, chyme, enzyme, vestibule, peristalsis, frenulum, amylase
  6. Discuss the stomach in detail. (diagrams, functions, location, structure, enzymes, etc.)
  7. Discuss the salivary glands in detail. (numbers, functions, names, locations, saliva, etc.)
  8. Name and describe the 2 major stages of gastric secretion.
  9. Give the substrates for the following enzymes: gastric lipase, pepsin, ptyalin
  10. Define "enzyme" and list the 2 specific ones that we have studied in Unit 6 along with their substrates and end products.
  11. Discuss the tongue in detail. (structure, diagrams, functions)
Unit 7
  1. Discuss villi in detail. (functions, location, types of cells, vessels, diagrams)
  2. Discuss the exocrine secretions of the pancreas. (names, functions, source)
  3. List in sequence the parts of the digestive system through which food passes in going from the mouth to th anus. (at least 14 steps)
  4. Define the following in detail:
    A. lipase, protease, amylase
    B. diabetes mellitus
    C. kupffer's cells
    D. pancreozymin
    E. mesentery
    F. peristalsis
    G. hepatic cells
    H. sinusoids
    I. secretin
    J. cholecystokinin
    K. enterokinase
    L. pendular
  5. Discuss the liver in detail. (location, lobes, microstructure, functions, circulations)
  6. Discuss the endocrine secretions of the pancreas. (names, functions, sources)
  7. What is the ileocecal valve and where is it located?
  8. Discuss in detail the digestion of chyme from the time it leaves the stomach until it reaches the anus. (include secretions, substrates, end products, and major functions of the organs involved)
  9. Name 2 proteases that we have studied and list their sources, substrates, and end products.
  10. Discuss the large intestine in details. (structures & functions)
  11. Draw and label a cross-section of the small intestine as seen through the microscope in lab 7-5.
  12. Briefly discuss 2 functions of the large intestine.
  13. Discuss bile. (source, where stored, functions, ingredients)
  14. Define hepatitis and cirrhosis in detail.
  15. Discuss the pancreas in detail. (location, secretions, structure)
  16. Draw and label a liver lobule as seen in lab.
Unit 8
  1. List 4 advantages to breathing through the nose.
  2. List the pathway taken by oxygen to get from the nose to the aveoli.
  3. Define and calculate: heart rate; cardiac output; stroke volume.
  4. Discuss the role of the diaphragm in breathing.
  5. Discuss the heart in as much detail as possible. (location, structure, function, circulation, conduction, etc.)
  6. Why is it necesary for the heart to have a circulatory system of its own when its chambers always contain blood?
  7. Name and briefly discuss the 4 valves of the heart. (structure, location, function)
  8. Discuss the larynx. (structure, location, function)
  9. What does air presure have to do with ventilation?
  10. Explain what changes occur in circulation at birth (or shortly after). In clude specific names of structures involved.
  11. Discuss the names and functions of the structures involved in getting air from the external environment into the bloodstream.
  12. Explain the heart's electrical conduction system and construct a diagram of the heart illustrating the structures of this system.
  13. Draw and label a normal ECG (include location of the 2 heart sounds)
  14. Define:
    tidal volume
    inspiratory reserve
    expiratory reserve
    vital capacity
    sinoatrial node
    chordae tendinae
Unit 9
  1. Describe the structure of capillaries, arteries, and veins. Give the function of each vessel and then discuss how their structure enables each to carry out its specific function.
  2. List the pathway for blood to get from the heart to the organs discussed in lecture and then back. For example, the pathway for blood to get from the heart to the right side of the face, left and right arms or feet and then back.
  3. What is arteriosclerosis and how does it affect blood pressure?
  4. Why is lymph discussed with the circulatory system in many A&P courses? Explain in detail.
  5. Define in detail:
    varicose veins
    T cells
    B cells
    Autoimmune diseases
  6. Discuss blood types in detail. (agglutinogens, agglutinins, percentages, what type accept what?)
  7. Draw and label a cross-section of an artery as seen in Lab 9-1. Give its function and briefly discuss how its structure enables it to carry out its function.
  8. Discuss how blood pressure is measured and what the readings represent.
  9. Discuss blood plasma in detail.
  10. What is a precapillary sphincter, in what type of vessel is it found (be specific) and why is it necessary?
  11. List the pathway for blood to get from the heart to the left hand and then back. (take the superficial route back)
  12. Discuss the relationship between arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and hypertension.
  13. Give the pathway of lymph circulation in sequence from the tissues to the blood. Briefly discuss each structure along the way. Diagram and discuss a lymph node (structures and functions). Discuss lymph in detail (definition, pathway, structure, and functions).
  14. Discuss leukocytes in detail and draw and label the two most common types.
  15. Discuss erythrocytes in detail.
  16. Explain what a sphygmomanometer is, how it is used, and what its readings mean.
  17. Describe T cells and Cell-Mediated Immunity.
  18. Describe B cells and Antibody-Mediated Immunity.
  19. Describe how antibodies work.
  20. Distinguish the difference between Natural and Artificial Acquired Immunity.
  21. Explain how an allergic reaction occurs.

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