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Unit 4

Lecture #1

I. Divisions of the Nervous System (pgs. 344-370)

  a. Functions: (see last paragraph on pg. 344)





  b. Major Divisions: (wait until lecture)

central

nervous system

sensory

peripheral

somatic

motor

autonomic





  c. Unique characteristics of nerve tissues: (complete in class)

    1. Irritability -



    2. Conductivity -





II. Cells of the Nervous System (pg. 344)

  a. Types: (describe each in detail)

    1. Neuroglia -





    2. Neuron -





    3. Nerves -





  b. Structure (3 main parts): (pgs. 345-349)

    1. Cell body (describe contents) -





      - Nucleus (name the genetic material found inside, remember your biology)

    2. Dendrite (function) -





    3. Axon (function) -





      - Predict the effect on the part of a severed axon that is no longer connected t its neuron cell body. (pgs. 345-346)



Lecture #2

    4. Other Features:

      - Myelin Sheath (describe) -





      - Neurilemma (describe) -



  c. Make a drawing of a Neuron. Use the diagram on pg. 347 as a guide.



    Labels

    dendrites

    nucleus

    axon hillock

    axon

    myelin sheath

    Schwann cells

    node of Ranvier

    synaptic knobs



III. Organization of the Nervous System (pg. 349)

    white matter -



    gray matter -



    nerve tracts (wait until lecture) -



    nuclei (wait until lecture) -





IV. The Synapse - (pg. 360) Discuss the pathway of touching a hot pan. (wait until lecture)









  (Describe each)
    1. presynaptic membrane -





    2. synaptic cleft -





    3. postsynaptic membrane -





Afferentvs.Efferent
(wait till lecture)








Lecture #3

Sense of Sight (pgs. 457-474)

I. Visual Accessory Organs: (pgs. 457-460)

  a. Protective Features

    1. Eyebrows and Bony Orbit (what do you think) -





    2. Eyelids (function) -





    3. Eyelashes (what do you think) -





    4. Lacrimal glands (function)







  b. Six Extrinsic Eye Muscles (names and movement): (pg. 460)

















II. Structure of the Eye

  3 major coats or tunics of eye: (name them)

  a. Outer tunic (fibrous) -



    1. Cornea - (discuss)





    2. Sclera - (discuss)







  b. Middle Tunic (vascular) - (discuss each)

    1. Choroid Coat -





    2. Ciliary Body -





    3. Iris -







  c. Inner tunic (nervous) - (pg. 465)

    1. Retina -



      Macula Lutea -





      Fovea Centralis -





      Optic Nerve -





      Optic Disk -







Lecture #4

    2. Visual Receptors (discuss each): (pg. 469)

      Rods -





      Cones -





    a. Bipolar & Ganglion cells (look at fig. 12.34)
      Can you find anything weird about the human eye?







III. Compartments of the eye (wait until lecture)

    anterior chamber -





    posterior chamber -





    aqueous humor -





    vitreous humor -





  Pathway of light through eye: (pg. 467)

























Functions of the Complete Eye: (pg. 468-474)

  Refraction -





  Lenses -

a) Biconvex



b)Converging



c)Focal Length








vs.



vs.












Biconcave



Diverging







Thick Lens



Thin Lens






  Accommodation -







  Focusing on objects - (3 parts)

    1.



    2.



    3.



  Near Point of Vision -









Lecture #5

  Eye Disorders: (Use the glossary and index)

    1. Myopia -





    2. Hyperopia -





    3. Presbyopia -





    4. Astigmatism -





    5. Strabismus -





    6. Color Blindness -





    7. Glaucoma -





    8. Cataracts -







Lecture #6

Ear Structure (pgs. 446-452)

  The ear serves 2 purposes:

    1.



    2.



Auditory Structures and Their Functions

  A. External Ear

    1. Auricle -





    2. External Auditory Meatus -





    3. Cerumen -





    4. Tympanic Membrane -





  B. Middle Ear

    1. Tympanic Cavity -





    2. Eustachain Tube (Auditory tube) -





    3. Ossicles -





  C. Inner Ear







    1. Vestibule -



      a. Oval Window -



      b. Round Window -





    2. Cochlea -





      a. Scala Vestibuli -



      b. Scala Tympani -



      c. Scala Media (Cochler Duct) -





        1. Tectorial Membrane -





        2. Vestibular Membrane -





        3. Basilar Membrane -







        4. Organ of Corti -







Lecture #7

Equilibrium - Sense of Balance (pg. 453-44)

  I. Organs of Static Equilibrium

    Vestibule:

      A. Utricle -



      B. Saccule-





        1. Structures:

          Macula -



          Otoliths -





        2. Function:









II. Organs of Dynamic Equilibrium (pg. 455-456)





  A. Semicircular Canals (Ducts)





    1. Structure:





      Ampulla -







      Crista Ampullaris -







    2. Function -





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