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Lecture 1
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I. Anatomical Terminology (pg.18) 

Discuss reasons- 

Anatomical Position (describe)- Relative position: 

Inferior (caudal) vs. Superior (cephalic)

Anterior vs. Posterior

Ventral vs. Dorsal

Medial        vs.      Lateral

Proximal     vs.       Distal

Superficial    vs.     Peripheral

Prone          vs.     Supine

II. Body Sections

     1.) Sagittal -

     2.) Transverse -

     3.) Frontal (coronal) -

III. Body Cavities : (name at least 1 organ found in each cavity) pg. 10

          Cranial                      Thoracic
      1.)                                 1.)

             Vertebral                           Abdominal
      1.)                                 1.)

IV. Areas of Body : (give scientific name) fig. 1.23

      forehead -                            head -
      neck -                                groin -
      chest -                               arm -
      armpit -                              elbow -
      hand -                                fingers -
      thigh -                               knee -
      foot -                                leg -

I. Detailed Definitions :
          Anatomy -

          Physiology -

          Explain why it is difficult to separate anatomy and physiology -

II. Characteristics of Life (discuss each) :
          Organism -

          Respond -

          Grow -

          Gain energy -

          Reproduce and repair -

          Metabolism -

III. Requirements of Organisms (discuss in your own words the importance of each item) :

          Water -

          Food -

          Oxygen -

          Heat -

          Pressure -

IV. Homeostasis

          Describe a homeostatic mechanism -

          Define negative feedback -

          Why is homeostasis so important to survival?

V. Levels of organization (discuss each) :
          Chemical -

          Organelle -

          Cell -

          Tissue -

          Organs -

          Organ system -

          Organism -

VI. Tissues - 4 Major Types : (list functions and locations) (Hint: Chp. 5 is helpful!)

          1. Epithelial -

          2. Connective -

          3. Muscle -

          4. Nervous -

I. Cutaneous Senses (class lecture) pg. 433-435

     Somatic senses



II.  1.) Sensory nerve fibers -

     2.) Meissner's corpuscles -

     3.) Pacinian corpuscles -

     4.) Temperature senses
               a. Cold -

               b. Heat -

     5.) Sense of pain -

III. Sensitive                     vs.            Insensitive areas (wait till lecture)

Integumentary System

I. Important Functions of the Integumentary Systems : (discuss pg. 161-162)





II. Skin (Two) Major Layers :

          1. Epidermis (define and name tissue) -

          2. Dermis (define and name tissue) -

          (hypodermis) -

     A. Epidermis

          1. Tissue -

          2. Layers of Epidermis (strata): (discuss each)

               a) Stratum Basale -

               b) Stratum Spinosum -

               c) Stratum Corneum -

          3. Describe position (see fig. 6.3) -

          4. Keratinocytes -

          5. How does thickness vary? -

             In thin skin what layer is missing?

          6. Calluses -

          7. Melanocytes -

     B. Dermis

          1. Papillae -

              Do identical twins have the same fingerprints?


          2. Discuss tissue and thicknesses

          3. Describe postiion (see fig. 6.4)

          4. List 6 structures found in the dermis

          5. Tension lines (wait till lecture)

          6.  Stretch marks (wait till lecture)

III.  Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)
      discuss tissue-

      function of adipose in subcutaneous layer-

      Discuss thickness

Accessory organs of the skin or skin appendages      A&P

I.  Hair follicles

            A.  Where is hair not found?

            B.  lanugo (wait till lecture)-

            C.  Terminal Hairs (wait till lecture)-

            D.  Vellus Hairs (wait till lecture)-

            E.  Compare female vs. male hair-

       1. Root-

       2.  Shaft-

                a. Medulla (wait till lecture)-

                b. Cortex (wait till lecture)-

                c. Cuticle (wait till lecture)-

       3.  Follicle-

               Explain how hair forms?

                 a. Matrix (wait till lecture)-

       4.  Hair Growth

             growth stage-

             resting stage-

             Discuss hair colors-

II.  Muscles

        Arrector Pili Muscle-

        Explain what causes goosebumps?

III.  Nails-

              Nail plate-

              Nail bed-


              How does the composition of a fingernail differ from that of a hair?

IV.  Cutaneous Glands (Skin Glands)

          1.  Subaceous Glands (discuss)

                 a. Sebum-

                 b. Where are sebaceous glands located?-

          2.  Sweat Glands: discuss

                  a. Eccrine  (Not Assoc. with Hair)



                        Contents of sweat-

                  b. Apocrine (Associated with Follicles)

                         Contents of sweat-



I. Regulation of Body Temperature (pgs.  173-175)

     A.  Discuss the importance of body temperature?-

     B.  Heat Production:

           1.  What process releases heat-

           2.  List the most active  cells-

     C.  What Distributes Heat?

     D.  Describe how the hypothalamus would cool the body if it became too hot.

     E.  Discuss the primary means of heat loss.

            1.  Radiation-

            2.  Conduction-

            3.  Convection-

            4.  Evaporation-

                  2 Main Ways:



         F.  Discuss how the body reacts to excessive heat loss?

II.  Body Temperature &  Fluctuations (wait till lecture):

          Warm   vs.   Cold Blooded Animals (wait till lec.)

     Discuss the process of Hyperthermia-

     Discuss the process of Hypothermia-

     Fever (wait till lecture)-

     Heat Exhaustion (see clinical note on page 174)-

     Heat Stroke (wait till lecture)

     What is the tissue response to inflammation?

     Which type of burn is most likely to leave a scar? why?


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