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Lecture 1
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Anatomy & Physiology
Unit 5 The Central Nervous System
 
Protective Structure of the Central Nervous System:
 
A.  Vertebrae (wait til lecture)
 
 
 
 
B.  Meninges (p376-377)
 
     1.  Dura Mater
 
 
 
 
 
          Epidural Space
 
 
 
 
 
     2.  Arachnoid Mater
 
 
 
 
 
          Subarachnoid Space
 
 
 
 
 
     3.  Pia Mater
 
 
 
 
 
          subdural hematoma (p376):
 
 
 
 
 
          meningitis (p377):
 
 
 
 
 
The Spinal Cord (p377-379):
 
 
 
 
A.  Location (wait til lecture)
 
 
 
 
 
B.  Structure of the spinal cord
     1.  Spinal Nerves (wait til lecture):
 
 
 
          a.  Mixed Nerves
 
 
 
 
          b.  Posterior Root
 
 
 
 
          c.  Anterior Root
 
 
 
 
     2.  Enlargements of Spinal Cord (see additional handout)
 
     3.  Type of tissue found in spinal cord:
 
          a.  White Matter
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                    i.  Grooves of Spinal Cord (p378):
 
                        Anterior Median Fissure:
 
 
 
 
                        Posterior Median Sulcus:
 
 
 
 
                    ii.  Columns (funiculi):
 
 
 
 
                        Anterior Column:
 
 
 
 
                        Lateral Column:
 
 
 
 
                        Posterior Column:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
     b.  Gray Matter (wait til lecture):
 
 
 
 
          i.  Horns (p378):
 
 
 
              Anterior Horn
 
 
              Lateral Horn
 
 
              Posterior Horn
 
 
 


 
 
 
C.  Function of Spinal Cord (p378):
 
 
 
 
          Ascending tracts:
 
 
 
 
          Descending tracts:
 
 
 
 
D.  Reflexes (p383 - 385):
 
 
 
 
 
     1.  Pathway (Arc) Reflex:
 
 
 
 
 
     2.  Diagram of Reflex Arc:
 


 
  
The Brain (p387):

 

    
A. Four Major Parts:
 1: Cerebrum




 2: Diencephalon:



 
 3: Brainstem (medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain):



 4: Cerebellum:





B. Cerebrum (p 387-397)
 1. Structure
        a. cerebral hemispheres- two large similar halves to the cerebrum.

        b. corpus callosum- bridge of nerve fibers connecting cerebral 
                            hemispheres

    Anencephaly (p388)


 2. Surface of Cerebrum (p389)
        a. convolutions (gyri or ridges):



        Lissencephaly (p389)



        b. Sulcus (pl. sulci):


        c. fissures:


        i. longitudinal fissure
        ii. central sulcus
        iii. lateral fissure

        d. Lobes of Cerebrum (4 in each side)
             i. frontal- anterior part of each hemisphre
             ii. parietal- posterior to frontal lobe
             iii. temporal- below lateral fissure/frontal lobe
             iv. occipital- posterior part of cerebrum/above cerebellum
             v. insula- covered by frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes

4. Function of cerebrum (p390):
    a.


    b.


    c.


    d.


5. Cerebral Cortex
    - thin layer of gray batter covering the cerebrum
    - brain power
    - unmyelinated nerves covering white myelinated fibers

Functional regions of Cerebral Cortex (Cerebrum)
a. Primary Motor Areas
b. Primary Sensory Areas (somesthetic)
c. Associative Areas (problem solving, memory, speech etc...)

PRIMARY MOTOR AREAS: on frontal lobe along the central sulcus 
   (sends voluntary impulses to all of the body's skeletal muscle). 
   (p 390; figure 11.16)











Apraxia:






**MOTOR AND SENSORY FIBERS CROSS OVER BEFORE GOING DOWN TO SPINAL CORD**


PRIMARY SENSORY AREAS (p392): interpret impulses from various receptors.

1. Parietal lobe- primary somesthetic cortex
2. Temporal lobe- auditory cortex
3. Occipital lobe- visual cortex

Associative Areas (p392): cortical areas adjacent to primary sensory areas 
   involved in recognition, memory, reasoning, verbalization, and emotional 
   feelings. Found in every lobe. If damaged other areas can take over some 
   duties.

Frontal lobes- (specifically: prefontal area)



parietal lobes-



temporal lobes-



occipital lobes-



6. other items
   3 types of memory (p393)- ability to retain information

   a) sensory memory- very short-term retention of sensory input while something is
                      scanned, evaluated, and acted upon. Last less then one second. 
                      Caused by transient changes in membrane potentials.

b) SHORT-TERM MEMORY- infromation held for a few minutes. This memory is usually 
                      limited to 7 bits of information. (ex: telephone #) Caused 
                      by short-term changes in membrane potentials.

c) LONG-TERM MEMORY- Repetition of the information and the association of the 
                     new information from short-term to long-term memory. This 
                     information is stored for recall at any time. (ex remembering 
                     for a particular reason like a test etc...) Cross-referenced 
                     in cortex

         1. declarative-

         2. procedural-

SLEEP- cerebral cortex inactive


RIGHT AND LEFT CORTEX

RIGHT HEMISPHERE                
*spatial perception
*recognition of faces
*musical ability

LEFT HEMISPHERE
*mathematics
*speech



concussion (p395)





Cerebral Palsy (p395)





Stroke (p395)





7. Ventricles (p394-397):


Lateral ventricles:




Third ventricle:




Fourth Ventricle:




Cerebrospinal Fluid:




**read about the function of basal ganglia (p394) and the limbic system (p401)

**Review Table 11.7 (p405)


C. DIENCHEPHALON (p398-401)
    *surrounds third ventricle
    *the part of the brain between the brainstem and the cerebrum
    *covered by the cerebral hemispheres

1. Main Parts of the Diencephalon (p398-400)
   a. Thalamus- forms sides of third ventricle





   b. Hypothalamus- forms floor of third ventricle (p400)

      i.




      ii.




      iii.





c. Pituitary Gland- inferior part of the diencephalon on the stalk called 
                    infundibulum: size of a pea









C. BRAINSTEM (p401-403)




   1. Parts of brainstem
      a. medulla Oblongata (p402)





      b. Pons (p402)





      c. Midbrain (mesencephalon):- inferior to diecephalon





RETICULAR FORMATION
   *group of nuclei distributed throughout the brainstem
   *receives sensory information from the face
   *these neurons play an active role in arousing and maintaining consciousness
   *it forms the sleep/wake cycle



E. CEREBELLUM (p403-405)
   1. Location:



   2. Structure:



   3. Function:



     Peduncles- 3 paired bundles of nerve tract connecting cerebellum to the 
                medulla and pons


Damage to Cerebellum:





4. BRAIN WAVES (p406)


  EEG (electroenephalogram) measures electrical activity of cerebral cortex. 
     Most of the time there is no particular pattern, at other times specific 
     patterns can be detected.


      Alpha waves: (8-13 cps) awake, eyes closed, resting
      Beta: (13 or higher cps) awake, eyes open, intense mental activity
      Theta: (4-8 cps) usually in children or stress, frustration and possible 
             brain disorders in adults.
      Delta: (4 or less cps) deep sleep
      No waves: DEAD

EEG Diagnose- epilepsy, trauma, disease, tumors and bruises
                

                            

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