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Unit 4

1. Taste buds are sensitive to many substances. From the list of 
   substances below, which one would the taste buds be most sensitive to?

     a. salt water
     b. vinegar
     c. quinine (bitter/tonic) water
     d. syrup
     e. none of the above

2. Pinkeye is the swelling of the

     a. retina
     b. choroid
     c. sclera
     d. conjunctiva
     e. lens

3. Tears

     a. are produced only when a person cries.
     b. wash foreign objects away from the eye.
     c. contain lysozymes to kill certain bacteria.
     d. both b and c.
     e. a, b, and c.

4. The outermost tunic (layer) of the eyeball is the 
   (Hint: This structure is fiberous)

     a. choroid.
     b. retina.
     c. sclera.
     d. iris.
     e. none of the above

5. The clear, transparent anterior part of the sclera is the

     a. choroid.
     b. retina.
     c. cornea.
     d. iris.
     e. none of the above

6. The vascular tunic contains many structures. Which of the structures 
   listed below is not found in the vascular tunic?

     a. choroid
     b. ciliary body
     c. retina
     d. both a and b
     e. both c and c

7. The optic disc

     a. does not contain any photoreceptor cells.
     b. is located in the vascular tunic.
     c. is the same structure as the macula lutea.
     d. is the site of the greatest visual acuity.
     e. can only be found in eyes of people with eye disorders.

8. The structure provides the greatest area for visual acuity?

     a. optic disc
     b. fovea centralis
     c. lens
     d. posterior chamber
     e. anterior chamber

9. The lens

     a. is biconcave.
     b. focuses light on the retina.
     c. is attached to the retina by suspensory ligaments.
     d. floats in the vitreous humor.
     e. protects the iris from getting damage.

10. If an object is located 20 feet or closer to a person, what must 
    the structures of the eye do to focus on the object?
     a. the lens must become flatter
     b. the ciliary muscles must contract
     c. the suspensory ligaments increase tension on the lens
     d. the cornea must move inward
     e. the lens must become less flatter and the cornea must move outward

11. Color vision

     a. is a function of cone cells.
     b. is most acute in dim light.
     c. depends on the amount of available rhodopsin.
     d. is interpreted in the cerebellum.
     e. is rare among people living on earth.

12. The eustachian tube

     a. carries sound to the eardrum.
     b. allows for equalizing air pressure between middle ear and outside 
     c. amplifies the sound waves.
     d. help maintain balance.
     e. both c and d or correct

13. The malleus, incus, and stapes

     a. form a bridge between the eardrum and oval window.
     b. are located in the inner ear.
     c. are surrounded by endolymph.
     d. are parts of the cochlea.
     e. none of the above

14. From the list below, which pathway is correct?

     a. tympanic membrane, vestibular membrane, basilar membrane
     b. oval window, vestibule, scali vestibuli
     c. round window, helicotrema, scali tympani
     d. bony labyrinth, round window, basilar membrane
     e. round window, vestibule, basilar membrane

15. Where are the sensory cells for hearing located?

     a. in the organ of Corti
     b. in the middle ear
     c. in the vestibule
     d. in the oval window
     e. in the cochlea

16. Which of the following definitions best describes the pitch of sounds?

     a. loudness
     b. wave frequency
     c. resonance quality
     d. amplitude
     e. both a and c

17. The utricle and the saccule are involved in

     a. static balance.
     b. kinetic balance.
     c. focusing objects.
     d. both a and b.
     e. neither a nor b.

18. Otoliths
     a. are found in the semicircular canals.
     b. stimulate hair cells to produce action potentials.
     c. are part of the ampulla.
     d. amplifies hearing.
     e. are part of the cochlea.

19. The semicircular canals
     a. are positioned at right angles to each other.
     b. allow a person to detect movement in all directions.
     c. have an expanded base called the ampulla.
     d. contain cupulae that move in response to moving endolymph.
     e. all the above.

20. The autonomic nervous system does not control which of the following 
    effector organs listed below?

     a. smooth muscle
     b. cardiac muscle
     c. skeletal muscle
     d. salivary glands
     e. lacrimal glands

21. Preganglionic fibers from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the 
    spinal cord that synapse with chain ganglia are part of 
    the ______ division of the ANS.

     a. central
     b. parasympathetic
     c. sympathetic
     d. somatic motor
     e. none of the above

22. Action potentials travel faster in

     a. unmyelinated axons.
     b. axons with larger diameters.
     c. myelinated axons.
     d. both a and b.
     e. neither a nor b.

23. Neurotransmitter is released from the

     a. synaptic cleft.
     b. presynaptic terminal.
     c. postsynaptic terminal.
     d. epineurium.
     e. none of the above


1. c 
2. d 
3. d 
4. c
5. c
6. c
7. a
8. b
9. b
10. b
11. a
12. b
13. a
14. b
15. a
16. b
17. a
18. b
19. e
20. c
21. c
22. b
23. b

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