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Unit 2

Lecture #1

I. Bone structure: (pg. 185 & Fig. 7.1) Discuss each and give example of bone-

    1) Long-



    2) Short-



    3) Flat-



    4) Irregular-



II. Parts of a Long Bone: (Bone Anatomy pg. 185-186)
  (Make a drawing w/labels of the top right diagram on pg. 186)





















  **Hint: Study the function of each labels (Pg. 185-186)







III. Microscopic Structure:

Haversion System or Osteon (pg. 151 & 187) (Wait till lecture)


















IV. Bone Matrix (wait till lecture)

  Framework (2-part)

    1. Organic Part (wait till lecture)-





    2. Inorganic Part (wait till lecture)-





    1) Compact Bone (discuss) (pg. 187)-





    2) Spongy Bone (discuss) (pg. 187)-





Lecture #2

V. Bone Development and Growth (pg. 188-192)

    Summarize the first paragraph-







VI. Comparison of Intramembranous and Endochondral Ossification
  (Duplicate Table 7.1 here) (Read pgs. 188-192 for further explanations)



















Helpful Points

    1. Starts 8 weeks after conception, stops at 25 years.
    2. Our first embronic skeleton is cartilage.
    3. Bone-building cells (osteoblasts) invade the cartilage from the surrounding periosteum.
    4. The osteoblasts hook together and then secrete minerals forming bone.



VII. Homeostasis of Bone tissue 9pg. 192)

    Summarize paragraph-









** Good students will study Figure 7.15



VIII. Factors Affecting Bone Development, Growth, and Repair
  (Discuss the importance of each)

    1) Vitamin D-





    2) Vitamins A & C-





    3) Growth Hormone-





    4) Thyroid Hormone-





IX. Bone Function: (pg. 193-198) Discuss each

    1) Support-





    2) Protection-





    3) Body Movement-





    4) Blood Cell Formation-





 Bone Marrow:



  Two Types (Discuss each)

    a) Red-



      Location-



    b) Yellow-



      Location-



    5) Inorganic Salt Storage-





Lecture #3

X. Skeletal Organization

    Number of Bones-



    Division of the Skeleton: (List the number of bones)
    (study table 7.3)

    1) Axial Skeleton (discuss bones)







    2) Appendicular skeleton







Joints of the Skeletal System Chapter 8

  Define articulations-



I. Classification of Joints   A) Fibrous (Synarthrotic) discuss-



    Ex. suture-



  B) Cartilaginous (Amohiarthrotic) discuss-



    Ex. symphysis-



  C) Synovial (Diarthrotic) discuss-



II. General Structue of a Synovial Joint (pgs. 260-261)

  Define the following:

    articular cartilage-



    joint capsule-



    ligaments-



    synovial fluid-



    bursae-



III. Types of Synovial Joints: (262)

    1) Ball and Socket-



    2) Condyloid (Ellipsoid)-



    3) Gliding-



    4) Hinge-



    5) Pivot-



    6) Saddle-



IV. Discuss types of Movements (pg 262-265) (wait till lecture)







Lecture #4

V. Joint Disorders (pgs 276-277)





1) Sprains (pg 276)-



2) Bursitis (pg 276)-



3) Arthritis-



4) Rheumatoid



vs.



5) Osteoarthritis



Tendons

vs.

Ligaments (wait till lec.)

        1)

        2)

        3)

        4)


VI.



Sprain



vs.



Dislocation (wait till lec.)



VII. Fractures: (pg. 194)

Simple



vs.



Compound



    a) Greenstick (incomplete)





      b) Complete-





      transverse-





      oblique-





      spiral-





      fissure-





      comminuted-





Lecture #5

Levers (pg 313-317)



  Definitions:

    1) Lever





    2) Effort (E)





    3) Resistance (R)





    4) Mechanical Advantage (MA)





    MA=



    If MA > 1 =



    If MA < 1 =



  Types of Levers:



    1st Class Levers:









    2nd Class Levers:









    3rd Class Levers:









Lecture #6

Calcium Feedback System: (fig. 7.15 or bottom of pg 198)

  Calcium ions (Ca++) in extracellular fluid are necessary for:

    1) blood clotting
    2) muscle contraction
    3) nerve function


  The proper level of Ca++ is controlled by the parathyroid gland

    Location- anterior to trachea (4 total>


  If the level of calcium is too LOW in the extracellular fluid, then:

    1) Parathyroid hormone is secreted which causes osteoclasts to break down bone and release Ca++

    2) Parathyroid hormone also causes more Ca++ to be absorbed fromt he intestines.

  If the level of Ca++ is too HIGH then:

    1) Parathyroid hormone is cut off which causes calcium to be added to the bone.

    2) Thyroid gland releases calcitonin which causes osteoblasts to deposit calcium in the bone

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